Planning Case Study 20

Land adjacent to The Pack, Burgh by Sands, Carlisle, Cumbria


Planning scenario(s)

1 - Pre-determination assessment/evaluation identified significant new heritage assets - Pre-determination assessment/evaluation identified significant archaeology on the development site (i.e. the results created significant new knowledge), especially where none was previously known in the HER.
4 - Pre-determination assessment/evaluation led to a modified development proposal - Pre-determination assessment/evaluation results led to a change in the extent or design of development.
7 - Pre-commencement archaeological conditions were attached to a planning permission - Pre-commencement archaeological conditions were attached to a planning permission and were necessary in order to enable the development to be permitted.

Heritage assets affected

Designated heritage assets with archaeological and historic interest Undesignated heritage assets with archaeological and historic interest

Type of application & broad category

Minor, Residential

Local planning authority

Authority: Carlisle City Council
References: 17/1012

Development proposal

Erection of single dwelling and garage, site area 0.12ha.

Archaeological information known about the site before the planning application was made, or before the development commenced, as appropriate

The development site is situated close to the north-western corner of Burgh II (the Roman Aballava), a military fort on Hadrian’s Wall, the northern frontier of the Roman empire, constructed in the early 2nd century AD. A civilian settlement lay to the south and south-east of the fort, and other extramural activity, including intensive industrial activity, has been found to the east.

Hadrian's Wall represents the most complete of the frontiers of the Roman Empire, and its archaeological and historic significance is reflected in its designation as a scheduled monument (NHLE no. 1018457), and its inclusion by UNESCO in the list of World Heritage Sites (as part of Frontiers of the Roman Empire).

The development site was a disused agricultural storage yard and itself not scheduled.

Archaeological/planning processes

In view of the proximity of the application site to the Roman wall and fort both Historic England and the LPA’s archaeological adviser recommended archaeological evaluation prior to the determination of the application.

An evaluation comprising two trenches found significant archaeological remains. A very large ditch of Roman military character aligned west-east may have been have been associated with either the Roman wall or the nearby fort. Despite the small size of the site, and the consequently limited area of the evaluation, the results are significant for the understanding of this part of the Roman frontier that has not been intensively studied.

Outcomes: archaeological

The archaeological evidence recovered by the evaluation identified Roman features which were assessed as being of national importance, of equivalent significance to designated heritage assets, and therefore covered by NPPF 2012, paragraph 139. In view of the depth below current ground surface at which the archaeological features were present it was possible to adjust the depth of foundations and services required for the new development, and to restrict these to a depth at which they would not affect the archaeological features. These details were agreed with the LPA before the determination of the planning application. The archaeological remains were therefore preserved in situ.

Planning permission was given for the development with a pre- commencement planning condition attached to secure a watching brief during development to record any other archaeological remains that might be present.

References and links/bibliography

  • Oxford Archaeology North 2018, Archaeological Evaluation Report. Unpublished report, OAN no. 1909.